|Use of obsolete technologies
and use of solid bricks with traditional practices are
seen as major threats to the Indian brick industry. Under
the business-as-usual scenario, Indian brick industry
will continue to operate with traditional technologies
and practices, which are poor in energy efficiency and
environmental performance as well as resources-intensive.
The following have been identified as major problems faced
by the Indian brick industry:
The project preparatory phase clearly indicated several
opportunities in the Indian brick industry to improve
resource efficiencies and promote production of resource
efficient bricks such as perforated bricks, hollow blocks
and fly ash bricks. This would require significant changes
and upgradation in the existing brick making processes,
for which ready-made solutions are not available.
- Limited information on resource efficient technologies
- Lack of resource efficient model brick kiln units
at cluster levels
- Non-availability of trained manpower
- Limited access to finance
- Unexplored market for alternate building products
- Old specifications and codes for building material
- Non-availability of institutional mechanism.
The project has
planned to undertake interventions in all regions of
the country, i.e. North, East, West, South, and North
East. The project interventions would help in introducing
‘Resource Efficient Brick’ (REB) products
such as hollow blocks, perforated bricks and fly ash
bricks in different regions of the country. This will
lead to switch over from the traditional hand moulding
method to the use of machinery (mechanization or semi-mechanization)
by the brick kiln units.
What are REBs?
|REBs are products that
consume less energy and resources for their production
than traditional fired clay bricks, and also have better
quality and insulation properties. There are different
types of REBs, such as perforated bricks, hollow blocks
and fly ash bricks.
In order to reach
out to various regions and brick clusters, the project
has set up Local Resource Centres (LRCs) in different
regions of the country, i.e. North, South, East, West
and North-East. The activities of the LRCs encompass
- Create awareness among architects, builders, other
end-users and government departments in order to facilitate
the uptake of REBs.
- Prepare and disseminate promotional material on
- Establish facts such as strengths and properties
of various REB products.
- Facilitate adoption of REB technologies (both mechanization
and semi-mechanization) by interested entrepreneurs
- Prepare DPRs (detailed project reports) for availing
loans from financial institutions and banks.
Why REBs are Important?
|Traditional brick manufacture uses
up huge quantities of top soil and fuels. It is becoming
increasingly difficult for brick entrepreneurs to tackle
the challenges posed by the growing scarcity or non-availability
of top soil in their vicinity, escalating fuel prices,
and difficulty in finding workers. At the same time, the
construction sector is witnessing an increasing use of
products such as REBs that offer better qualities than
traditional bricks in certain parameters. Present day
constructions usually have RCC (reinforced concrete cement)
columns, with bricks mainly used as partition walls. Unlike
earlier, bricks are no longer being used as load bearing
walls in the majority of buildings.
Traditional brick manufacture uses up huge quantities
of top soil and fuels. It is becoming increasingly difficult
for brick entrepreneurs to tackle the challenges posed
by the growing scarcity or non-availability of top soil
in their vicinity, escalating fuel prices, and difficulty
in finding workers. At the same time, the construction
sector is witnessing an increasing use of products such
as REBs that offer better qualities than traditional bricks
in certain parameters. Present day constructions usually
have RCC (reinforced concrete cement) columns, with bricks
mainly used as partition walls. Unlike earlier, bricks
are no longer being used as load bearing walls in the
majority of buildings.
Advantages of REBs
|REBs offer a number
of advantages in production as well as end-use applications.
These include the following.
- Uniform product size and better finish
- Low water absorption (<10%)
- Improved crushing strength of extruded products
(300 to 350 kg/cm2)
- Resource savings – energy (up to 20%), and
top soil (up to 30%)
- Reduction in masonry costs and plaster requirements
- Reduced cooling/heating load requirements.
|The following outcomes are envisaged
through the various activities proposed under the project:
- Enhancing public sector awareness on resource-efficient
- Access to finance for brick kiln entrepreneurs
- Improved knowledge on technology, including marketing
- Availability of resource efficient technology models
in five clusters through Local Resource Centres
- Improved capacity of brick kiln entrepreneurs
- Higher energy efficiency in brick production
- Improved resource efficiency and reduced land degradation
- Reduced local and cluster level pollution
- High level of awareness among various stakeholders
- Additional benefits:
- Improvements in building efficiency with reduction
in heating and cooling loads, due to the air gaps
in resource efficient bricks
- Reduced drudgery and improved health of moulders
and other workers.
Project Goal and Objectives
The goal of the project is to reduce energy consumption
by creating appropriate infrastructure for sustained adoption
of new and improved technologies for production and use of
resource efficient bricks in India.
The objectives of the project are:
- To demonstrate REB technologies and develop technology
models (supply side)
- To build awareness and develop sustainable markets for
REBs among various stakeholders such as builders, architects,
individual end-users (demand side)
- To influence government organizations, financial institutions
and policy and decision makers
Common fired clay brick is one of the important building materials in India. Bricks are used as walling material in most residential and commercial buildings. They are also used for other applications, e.g. road and canal construction. India is the second largest producer of bricks in the world and is next to China in terms of brick production. The estimated brick production during the year 2000–01 was 140 billion . The brick production is estimated to be growing at a rate of 4% per year.
Bricks are produced at village and rural enterprise levels. The sizes of brick units are much smaller in the rural areas. However, in peri-urban areas, the size of brick producing units is much larger, and clustering of ...